M-CCTNS : Applying A.I and Smart Mobility to Policing
Over and over again lack of accurate documentation and its timely retrieval has been raised as a significant problem in the functioning of the the police force in India. The CCTNS Project (Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems) was a mission mode project of Government of India which was conceived in the year 2008 in the aftermath of 2008 Mumbai Attacks. The project was allotted Rs.2000 crores which envisaged networking of all Police Stations in the country with creation and deployment of a software for the conduct of core police functions. Thus, resulting in a national database which would be dynamic in nature and would provide a satisfactory answer to the quick response to the information required on crime and criminals. Karnataka is one of four Advanced States for the CCTNS project.
Despite an early reluctance to adopt computers by law enforcement agencies as a whole, police departments now find themselves tasked to maintain officer competencies in both law enforcement and computer applications. Without any doubt, Software Applications are helping in prevention & detection of crime, data oriented predictive policing and for maintenance of law and order.
In this digital era, technology is ever evolving and is becoming powerful and useful day by day. After only about a decade, smartphone technology is so successful that it has become a powerful portable computer in everyone’s hand. Besides making phone calls, nearly all smartphones today have capabilities to process data, connect to devices, natively provide directions through GPS, take pictures, communicate data over internet securely etc., And we at Capulus Technologies are making it much smarter with our intelligent apps and increasing the productivity of users by multiple folds.
Modern day criminal activities are giving rise to the never-ending demand for the Police Modernization. After all, police should be one step ahead of the criminals. Adopting the modern technologies is the only way forward.
Our ambitious product Mobile-CCTNS contributes to the techniques, technologies and methods built over existing infrastructure of CCTNS which is a step towards adopting to the next generation of policing using A.I & Smart Mobility.
The MCCTNS Application is developed in a Modular Structure and Scalability in mind. Working closely with the Police Department and backed with years of extensive research since 2015, over the years we have come up with several modules and some of which have been already implemented in Karnataka State and being used officers all across the state. The Application was launched by the Chief Minister of Karnataka.
Here in this article, let me brief about some of the modules of MCCTNS:
Person Of Interest
(Obviously not that American Crime Drama TV Series! But, both deals with finding criminals) Person of Interest module provides smart-phone based access to the criminal database and an extensive search functionality backed with A.I which can be utilized by officers anytime, anywhere. The criminal data in app are categorized based on several heads and completely in sync with CCTNS.
Complete criminal profile and criminal history of a person along with photo can be accessed from the app, along with Court Case and Prison Details. At any point of time, an officer can search any criminal by name, alias, crime number, address/place, father’s name etc., The same centralized criminal database or let’s call it the P.O.I database can be integrated with Automatic Fingerprint Identification and Face Recognition modules.
This instant dissemination of information for officers on ground will increase the productivity of the officers and also helps in apprehending criminals in a much faster way.
Crime Mapping and Analytics
Crime Mapping and analysis module provides a smart and efficient way for the officers to perform Crime Mapping directly from the spot of crime. This helps in populating crime activities database mapped with exact GPS location of crime and crime scene photos. Police Department will get a bird’s eye view of crime hotspots on a geographical map and can get full understanding of what’s happening in the city/district. Officers can view all crime mappings in the jurisdiction in their smartphone itself, quickly search for various crimes and most important of all perform statistical and geographic analysis based on this data.
The application captures the raw data of crime mappings and displays analytics by using machine learning techniques to discover insights, find new patterns and discover relationships. A geographical-map of crimes is generated which gives a bird’s eye view of crimes and also identifies crime hotspots. Analytics such as of particular crime type across time, crime trend in a particular jurisdiction, overall crime ratio etc. are generated in the app itself. This helps in Predictive Policing by analyzing patterns and trends which is vital in taking further steps in crime prevention.
Crime mapping and analysis helps Police Department to make better decisions, formulate strategies and target resources. This gives officers the ability to share actionable intelligence across jurisdiction and perform Crime Forecasting, Predictive Policing and Geographic Profiling. This in-turn brings Information-led policing and Problem-Oriented policing concepts to practice.
Arrest co-ordination module helps officers to co-ordinate arrests across jurisdiction. Let’s consider a criminal has several cases registered on him across multiple police stations. Someday, he gets arrested in some place and brought to a police station. Now, the problem is other police stations / officers doesn’t know that the wanted person is arrested somewhere. Our app fills the gap in co-ordination here! Whenever a wanted criminal is arrested in any of the police stations, the officer notifies arrest using app. As soon as the officer notifies that a person is arrested in his station, all other officers will get an instant notification in their phone along with the photo and crime details of the arrested person. If the arrested person is wanted in some other case of the recipient officer, they will coordinate with each other and proceed with investigation.
The notification of arrest information solves the problem of missing coordination between the jurisdictions when a criminal is wanted in multiple cases and in multiple jurisdictions.
Vehicle Crime Search
Vehicle Crime Search module enables officers to instantly access the Crime and Case details of a particular vehicle instantly in their mobile phone. Officer enters the vehicle registration number or engine number or chassis number of the suspected vehicle in the app, the app instantly throws the crime details and case history along with all known details of the vehicle if it was part of any crime. This helps the officer to speed up the investigation process as the officer will get the required information instantly in-time.
Missing Person and UDR [Unnatural Death Record]
This module helps officers to access, search, compare and get notified about UDR and Missing cases. All officers can instantly access UDR and Missing persons database in their phone itself. They will also get cloud based Push Notifications about any registered UDRs or missing persons whenever the case is registered in any police stations of their unit. Push notifications with photo and details of UDR or missing person will be automatically sent to officers’ phone. The app also provides an A.I based extensive search functionality on the whole state database based on various parameters of missing or dead person.
This instant dissemination of information on UDR and Missing persons help officers to solve the corresponding cases faster and keeps officers well informed about such cases in their vicinity.
App based Fingerprint Identification of Criminals
This module can have a separate article on it’s own. I will link the article here, once it is available. This module helps to instantly perform fingerprint identification of any person to check whether he is present in criminal database. The module acts as the mobile app client for the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System if already present or it can have its own AFIS Server at the backend. The app will communicate with external portable fingerprint scanner connected to the mobile phone and provides an interface to scan the fingerprint of the person being investigated.
Then, the app will securely communicate the captured fingerprint to the central biometric gateway through APIs and sends it to AFIS. AFIS performs the fingerprint identification on the whole database and gets the result. If the application finds a Positive ID, fingerprint result will be linked to the criminal’s demographic details present in Person of Interest module and complete criminal profile is instantly displayed in the officer’s phone.
The app based instant fingerprint identification module helps the officers on ground to save a lot of time and efforts in verification and apprehension process.
We are integrating several other futuristic modules into the application soon! To meet the challenges of the coming decades it is essential to have a police force which is up-to-date with ICT. This will build the confidence of the public that the police force is effective and can serve the community efficiently. It will help bring more offences and offenders to justice through a modern and efficient process. And as mentioned in my previous post, not only does technology promise to improve police effectiveness and efficiency in controlling crime, it may also enhance their professional status and organizational legitimacy.